Much like Imperial tribes, Oligarchies leaderships are run entirely by blood. The only difference being there is only one leader a time, and usually death is what passes leadership onto the next of kin. Oligarchies have armies, many many guards all at once to protect the leader and followers.
Guards can be anyone, and are considered a higher tier than hunters or nursemaids.
Hunters and gatherers serve everyone, but the majority and first pick of meals goes to the leaders.
Too busy with their duties, often pups are raised by a single nursemaid- while the next of kin for the throne is raised exclusively by the leader.
With many classes of tribe worker, Parliaments designate single leaders for each job to help run things. Anyone in the tribe can become a member of Parliament, and nothing is passed down- not even rank, to next of kin.
A Parliament representative is chosen from each group, so that control is extended to everyone.
Parliament decides how resources are split up, so who serves whom is often up to the decision of Parliament alone- so no Pariliament tribe runs the same.
A group of more than two leaders of no special caste vote on how things are run. Unlike Parliament, it is not the decision of everyone on who is elected a Republic leader, and often it if decided on the deathbed of one of the dying leaders. Republic leaders are very secretive, often holding meetings and making decisions quickly and without consideration of the rest of the tribe.
Hunters, gatherers, and nursemaids are elected by the Republi- and their roles can be taken away at any time.
Other non-special caste members are treated better or worse depending on their standing with the Republic.
Sanguine tribes honor a single leader, the most vicious and bloodthirsty of them all. Leadership is earned through bloodshed, a competitor must murder the leader to become the leader.
The finest hunters and best competitors for the throne are always at the top, getting first meals, the best treatment. Only their kin can take their place.
On the outside are trapped or enslaved tribe members- they are forced to do the bidding of the rest and are not allowed to have children. Only the most vile of these outsiders could possibly stand a chance to make it into the inner circle.